Chickens, from Xi congyu. Birds of the ornithischiaceae family, there are many varieties.
Chickens are the most common poultry raised by humans. Domestic chickens are native to wild chickens and have been domesticated for at least 4,000 years, but chicken and eggs did not become mass-produced commodities until around 1800. The types of chickens are turkey, black chicken, pheasant and so on. And chicken is also a genus in the 12 zodiac signs.
- Chinese scientific name
- Latin scientific name
- animal kingdom
- Vertebrate subphylum
- Pheasant family
- Proto-chicken genus
- Red Chicken
- Domestic chickens
Allusions to legends
Dumb wooden chicken classic “Zhuangzi Dasheng”. It is said that King Xuan of Zhou especially loves to watch cockfighting, and he asked the Qi state chicken tamers to train a cockfighting that is always victorious and undefeated. This one
The chicken stood there, calm, not arrogant, looking like a wooden chicken, and when the other chickens saw it like this, they were all scared away and did not dare to fight with it. The meaning of being a wooden chicken has evolved into the appearance of a person stunned by fear or surprise.
Yue Huaiyi chicken classic “Mencius”. One man stole a chicken from a neighbor’s house every day, and someone advised him, “This is not the act of a decent person!” He then said, “I know it’s not good, so please allow me to steal a little less, I used to steal one a day, and then I stole one every month, and next year, I will completely wash my hands and stop drying.” “Metaphor refers to those who know that they are wrong, but deliberately delay time and refuse to correct it in time.
The Morning Ceremony of the Muji Division published the “Shang Shu Pastoral Oath”. Mu chickens, hens also. Singing was originally a “patent” of roosters, and the hen’s singing in the morning was considered unlucky, which was thought to herald the decline of the family. The feudal era was used as a metaphor for women usurping power and chaos.
Chicken mouth cattle queen is also known as “chicken corpse cow from”, “rather for chicken mouth, no cow queen”. Classic of “Warring States Policy , Han Ce”. I’d rather have a small, clean mouth than a big, smelly cow anus. The metaphor is that it is better to be autonomous in places where the situation is small, and not to be dominated by people in places where the situation is large.
The rooster’s broken tail canonized the “Twenty-two Years of Zuo Chuan Zhaogong”. Originally referring to the rooster mutilating himself for fear of sacrificing sacrifices, the metaphor later refers to the fact that a man commits suicide for fear of being killed.
Chicken singing dog steals the “History of Meng Yujun Lie”. Meng Yujun sent an envoy to Qin to be detained by King Zhao, and Meng Yi pretended to be a dog and went into the Qin camp to steal the fox white fur and offer it to King Zhao’s concubine to intercede for Meng; when Meng fled to Hangu Pass, King Zhao ordered him to pursue him, and another diner pretended to be a chicken and led the chickens to swindle the city gates, and Meng was able to escape back to Qi. Today’s chicken dog thief mostly refers to insignificant skills, but also refers to sneaky behavior.
The ascension of the chicken dog to heaven is also known as “one person gets the Tao, the chicken dog ascends to heaven” and “the chicken dog is immortal”. Classic of “Immortal Biography Liu An”. The book says that Liu An, the king of Huainan, cultivated the Tao, and when he was about to ascend to heaven, “the remaining medicine devices were placed in the atrium, and the chickens and dogs licked and pecked”, and they all ascended to heaven and became immortals. Later generations used the metaphor of the ascension of chickens and dogs to the heavens to benefit one person, and relatives and friends also brought light to it.
Niu Ding Cooked Chicken Classics “Later Han Shu Bian Rang Biography”. Cook the chicken in a large pot of boiled beef. Metaphors are too big to use.
Taste like chicken ribs canon out of the “Three Kingdoms Chronicle, Wei Zhi, Emperor Wuji” Pei Songzhi’s annotations quoted “Spring and Autumn in Kyushu”. Chicken ribs have no meat, metaphorically certain things do not do a pity, do not do much benefit.
Smelling the chicken dancing canon out of the “Jin Shu Zu Di Biography”. It is said that Zu Di and Liu Kun were young and had a strong heart, and when they heard the chickens crying in the middle of the night, they got up to practice martial arts in preparation for serving the country. Later generations will use this metaphor to have people with lofty ideals work hard in time.
Standing tall flock is also known as “lone flock”. Jin DaiKui’s “Treatise on the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Forest” was exemplified. It is said that Ji Shao is “angry like a wild crane in the flock”. The metaphor of a person’s appearance or talent stands out in a group of people around him.
The domestic chicken pheasant dictionary produced the Jin He Fasheng “Jin Zhongxing Book”. The original meaning is that Jin Gengyi likened his calligraphy to a domestic chicken, and Wang Xizhi’s calligraphy as a pheasant to show the near and noble, and also to compare the calligraphy paintings with different styles.
The chicken bone support bed is a classic of the Southern Dynasty Song Liu Yiqing’s “World Speaking New Language and Virtue”. The original meaning was to be emaciated and tired on the bedside due to excessive grief of relatives, and later used as a metaphor for filial piety in the funeral of parents, and also described as very emaciated.
The Pheasant Dance Mirror canonizes liu Jingshu’s “Alien Garden” of the Southern Dynasty Song Dynasty. Pheasants dance in the mirror, a metaphor for self-appreciation.
The pottery dog Waji classic produced the Southern Dynasty Liang Xiaoxuan’s “Golden Wisp”. Dogs made of clay cannot keep vigil, and chickens made of clay cannot be chen. Metaphors have form and nothing practical.
In ancient mythology, there is also a saying that the chicken is a deformation of the heavy bird. It is said that when Emperor Yao was in power, the distant friendly states paid tribute to a kind of heavy ming bird that could ward off evil spirits, and everyone welcomed the arrival of the heavy ming bird, but the tribute envoy did not come every year, and people carved a wooden heavy ming bird, or cast the heavy ming bird in copper and placed it on the portal, or painted the heavy ming bird on the door and window to scare off the demons and ghosts, so that they did not dare to come again. Because the heavy bird resembles a chicken, it was gradually changed to painting chickens or cutting window flowers to paste on doors and windows, which became the source of paper-cutting art in later generations. In ancient China, special attention was paid to chickens, calling it the “bird of the five virtues”. The “Han Shi Wai Biography” says that it has a crown on its head and is Wende; it is a martial virtue after the foot; it is brave virtue when the enemy dares to fight in front; it is a kind of food to greet the same kind; when the vigil is not lost, the sky is dawn, and it is faith. Therefore, people not only cut chickens during the New Year, but also set the first day of the New Year as Chicken Day.
In ancient times, chickens were painted on doors and windows during the Spring Festival. The Han People’s “Book of Zhan” by Dongfang Shuo says: “The first day of the first day of the first month of the year occupies the chicken, the second day occupies the dog, the third day occupies the pig, the fourth day occupies the sheep, the fifth day occupies the cattle, the sixth day occupies the horse, and the seventh day occupies the person.” “After the six animal days are finished, it is the turn of the seventh day of the first year to be human. Why is there such a ranking? In ancient times, there were three sayings in a popular book called “Farm Chores”: one was that the six animals were domesticated in the order in which humans tamed six animals, and chickens were first domesticated into poultry, followed by dogs, and so on. Another theory is to arrange by the size of the livestock, with the smaller ones in front, so the chickens are ranked first and the others are ranked last. There is also a saying that the six animals and people are arranged in the distance and proximity, chickens and dogs are kept in the house, close to people, pigs and sheep are secondary, cattle and horses have other stables, farthest from the house, so they are in the back. It seems that there is some truth to the latter statement. Why do people rank behind the six animals? Although the ancients did not discover the truth of evolution, human beings, who were tools for creation and thought, appeared later than inferior animals, which is in line with the principles of biological evolution. People may paint chickens during the Spring Festival because the first day of the first year is a chicken day.
The “Book of Xuanzhong” written by the Jin Dynasty mentions the heavenly rooster on the Dushuo Mountain mentioned earlier, saying that when the sun has just risen and the first rays of sunlight shine on this big tree, the heavenly rooster will cry. As soon as it cried, the chickens of the world began to cry. Therefore, the chicken cut during the Spring Festival symbolizes the heavenly rooster.
The sacred meaning of the chicken In the Chinese Creation Day myth, the chicken has the honor of being created on the first day of Genesis. Volume 30 of the Taiping Imperial Records quotes the Notes on the Sayings of the Sage:
First, when the heavens and the earth first opened, they should be chickens in one day and man in seven days. “Why did the chicken become something created on the first day of the Genesis myth? This must have something to do with the sacred meaning of the chicken. Mr. Ye Shuxian once described the chicken in his “The Mystery of the Prototype Number “Seven””, which gave us a good answer. “The chicken created on the first day of the myth of the Day of Creation is superficially an animal, but in mythological thinking it is a symbol of a specific spatial orientation, the Orient. Mythologists believe that the theme of the creation myth from chaos to order, from darkness to light, is based on the natural phenomenon of the eastern sunrise and the replacement of night by day in the daily experience of the first people.
In the Spring and Autumn Period, Zuo Qiuming’s “Chinese? The Jin Dynasty IV records: “The twenty-five sons of the Yellow Emperor, fourteen of whom had the surname, were twelve surnames: Ji, You, and Qi…” The twelve surnames reflect the twelve ethnic groups of the ancient Yellow Emperor tribe. Of the twelve surnames, only the chicken is a member of the twelve tribes.
The ancient timer has not yet been invented, and the chicken chirps in the morning, reporting to people that the new weather has begun, it is not only the clock of the farmers, but also the clock of public life. In the Warring States Period, the famous Hangu Pass, the opening and closing time was based on the sound of chickens. Meng Tianjun, who fled in frustration, faced the closed gate of the gate, worried that the soldiers would arrive behind, and there were ventriloquists among the diners, learning to chirp chickens, crying and the flock of chickens chirping, tricking the door into opening and closing. This story was written into the “Records of History” by Sima Qian and passed down as a familiar canon.
Those who raise many chickens can also get rich, and such real-life scenes are also reflected in myths and legends. The Biography of the Immortals says: “Those who wish the chickens are also luoyang people.” Living in the north mountain of the corpse township, raising chickens for more than 100 years. There are more than a thousand chickens, all of which have names. The tomb perches on a tree and scatters it during the day. If you want to call the name, you follow the call. Selling chickens and seeds, you get more than 10 million. Put the money away. “Raising chickens can earn more than ten million dollars, which is a reflection of the rich economic interests of the chicken industry.” Chickens have an important influence on people’s lives, so they can occupy a special place in the zodiac. It is the only bird, and similar to the rank of the “six animals”, sitting firmly in front of dogs and pigs. When the zodiac appeared is still unknown. It is likely that in the era of the legendary Yellow Emperor, its budding has already appeared. The Chinese Jin Yu records that “the twenty-five sons of the Yellow Emperor, fourteen of whom had the surname, were twelve surnames: Ji, You, Qi, Ji, Teng, Ren, Xun, Xun, Zi, Nu ji, Yi, and Yi Shiye. “The unitary in it coincides with the chicken in the later zodiac.
In ancient times, the Han nationality had the custom of “killing chickens”, which was popular in Jinhua, Wuyi and other places in Zhejiang. Every year on the seventh day of the first month of July, the local folk will be roosters, because that night the cowherd and the weaver girl Queqiao meet, if there is no rooster to report, they can never be separated.
The Tujia family called kicking shuttlecocks “kicking chickens”. During the Spring Festival, young men and women kick the “chicken” together, one person kicks the “chicken”, everyone goes to compete, and the person who receives the “chicken”,
You can use grass to chase anyone. Young men and women often use grass to chase after their sweethearts. After that, “kicking the chicken” became a medium for talking about love.
On the first day of the tenth month of the lunar calendar, some places in Henan want to kill chickens and scare ghosts. Legend has it that Yama Wangye released ghosts and collected ghosts on the Qingming Festival in the coming year. Folk think that ghosts are afraid of chicken blood, and chicken blood avoids evil, so they kill chickens on October 1 to scare ghosts, so that the little ghosts dare not come out. As the saying goes, “On the first of October, kill the chicks.” ”
Some areas in Shandong have the marriage custom of “holding chickens”. When marrying a relative, the female family chooses a boy to hold a hen, and leaves with the flower palanquin to send relatives. Because the chicken is in harmony with “Ji”, it is Auspicious who holds the chicken picture. In addition, in ancient times, there was a custom of keeping “long-lived chickens”. When it is close to marrying a new one, the man should prepare a big red rooster, the woman should prepare a fat chicken, and the hen said that the bride was a “jiren”. When getting married, the rooster prepared by the woman must be carried by her underage brother or other boys, set off with the palanquin, and rush to the man’s house before the rooster crows. People think that the rooster does not sleep, and the hen does not sleep, and the momentum overwhelms the rooster. The man then gives the rooster to the person who holds the rooster, ties the rooster and the hen to the leg of the table together, and beats the rooster from time to time until the rooster is weak, which is a symbol of the wife’s subduing of the husband. After that, these two chickens must not be killed, so they are called long-lived chickens. In Zhejiang, the marriage custom of “slaughtering chickens” is popular. The groom goes to the bride’s house to marry, and the woman’s family spreads a white cloth on the ground and asks the groom to slaughter the chicken on it, and the chicken blood cannot be dripped on the white cloth, otherwise a few drops will be punished with a few glasses of wine. When killing chickens, the woman deliberately bumps into the groom, but the experienced groom can cope with it freely and does not let the woman succeed.
The Bai people in the Dali region of Yunnan province are popular for the custom of “chicken rice ceremony”. Chicken rice gifts are divided into two kinds: chicken rice single gift and about rice double gift. The single gift is a rooster and a pot of rice wine; the double gift is two large roosters, a pot of rice wine, and a pot of grain seeds. This is a gift given to each other by relatives or in-laws at birth, marriage, and building a house.
There are many kinds of chickens, chickens produced in various places. They vary in size.
Chinese chicken culture has a long history and rich connotations. In the first phase of the culture of Tianshui Xishanping Dadiwan in Gansu, it has been found that it is about 8,000 years old
Chicken China’s oracle bones have the word “chicken”, indicating that China has known chickens as far back as 3,000 years ago, raising chickens in China has a history of 8,000 years, there are textual history at least 3,000 years, is one of the earliest chicken countries in the world, is also the earliest to find chicken has a variety of medicinal value of the country. In traditional Chinese culture, dragons and phoenixes are deified animals, but chickens are extraordinary spiritual birds, such as the image of a phoenix derived from chickens. “Taiping Imperial Records”: “When the Yellow Emperor was in power, the phoenix was used as a chicken. “Legend has it that the chicken is the sun in the middle of the day, and the chicken chirps at sunrise, brings light, and can drive out demons and ghosts. According to Kao, Jin Dongxun’s “Etiquette for Answering Questions” said: The first day of the first lunar month is chicken day, and Zhengdan draws chickens at the door. During the Wei and Jin dynasties, the chicken became a thing in the door painting to ward off evil spirits. The Southern Dynasty Emperor’s “Chronicle of the Jingchu Years” also contains that “the first day of the first month … Stickers on the chicken household, hanging reeds on it, insert peaches to charm its poop, a hundred ghosts fear it.” This custom has been handed down, making it a custom to paste chickens on the lintel of the door to become the Custom of the Spring Festival in Chengdu, Sichuan. In the past, there were also New Year paintings of “Chicken King Town House” in the Peach Blossom Wood New Year Painting, which was patterned with a large rooster mouthing poisonous insects. Cockfighting has been prosperous in the history of our country for a long time, and has been used by people as a means of pastime and exaggeration, which can be seen from the Han Dynasty stone carvings and portrait tiles excavated by archaeology. “Warring States Strategy, Qi Ce” first recorded the cockfighting entertainment in China’s pre-Qin period: “Seventy thousand households in Linzi … Its people all play drums, play the piano, fight cocks and dogs, and bow their heads. “The custom of cockfighting was very popular in the Tang Dynasty, especially the figures of the privileged class——— favored eunuchs, and princes and grandsons. Cockfighting was later promoted to the military to inspire the courage of soldiers and improve the morale of soldiers, and when Japan sent envoys to the DPRK, they introduced the experience of cockfighting back to China, and Japan also imitated it for a while. Later, it spread to Laos, Vietnam, the Philippines and other countries. Today there are cockfights at home and around the world. Laos, Vietnam (1968), the Philippines (1997) and other countries have issued cockfighting stamps; Cuba issued a set of 6 Cockfighting stamps issued on May 25, 1981, all 6 pieces, And Figure 6 is the first, which is a cockfighting with its head held high. On December 18, 1997, the Philippines issued a stamp “Cockfighting”, a set of 8 stamps (two quadrilateral companies) and 2 miniature sheets depicting cockfighting chickens and miniature sheets depicting two chickens fighting each other. As a warrior who is good at fighting, its courage and heroism have been deeply appreciated by literati and inkers since ancient times, and often use the rooster as a material for poetry and painting creation. For example, the “Poetry Classic: Wind and Rain” cloud “wind and rain like obscurity, chickens singing”, and later “wind and rain like obscure, chickens chirping” was extended to describe that in the turbulent, turbulent and dark times, gentlemen with a sense of justice still insisted on integrity and bravely fought for ideals. The painter Xu Beihong once created “Chicken Singing in the Rain”, and Zhu Xuanxian created chinese paintings such as “Golden Rooster Saiju”, “Loofah Chicken”, “Chicken”, etc. are all very excellent art works with chicken as the theme. In ancient China, there were no clocks that chime the time, and people worked at sunrise and breathed in and out. Take the dawn as the beginning of the day’s work, and when the dawn is determined by the rooster to report, people trust the rooster, because the rooster has faith, and the rooster never reports errors, the ancients said that this is “vigil without losing time”, is the performance of faith. As the saying goes, “three more lights and five more chickens”, according to the words of today’s people, that is, chickens have the good qualities of diligence, accuracy, discipline, not missing the time, and being serious and responsible. The story of the Jin Dynasty Zu Di “smelling the chicken dancing” inspired people’s fighting spirit, and was praised as a “model of man”. Modern people praise the chicken, mainly praising the chicken’s martial courage and trustworthiness. For example, the Chinese zodiac stamp “Xin Younian” (T.58), the original painting was created by the painter Zhang Ting, who used exaggerated and romantic techniques to depict a colorful and heroic flower rooster. It stands with its neck held high, its excitement and its majesty standing tall, a warrior, a hero, and a loud clarion call for time to move forward! Most of the commemorative postmarks used in various parts of our country are also based on the “Golden Rooster Announcing” with its head held high. Some countries in Europe are also accustomed to using the rooster motif as a weather vane, and the commemorative stamp “The 100th Anniversary of the Founding of the International Meteorological Organization” issued by Togo in 1973 is based on the chicken.
On the afternoon of October 26, 2009, the guests invited to attend the Genqin Cultural Festival and participate in the “Taste of Family Affection – Gushi High-quality Agricultural Products Development Cooperation Strategy Seminar” visited the “China Chicken Culture Museum”, which marked the completion and opening of China’s first “Chicken Culture Museum” in our county.
Our country’s cultural heritage is vast, and the culture of chickens has a place in it. Conscientiously summarizing and disseminating various chicken cultural phenomena is of great significance to carrying forward traditional Chinese culture and strengthening the protection of intangible cultural heritage. In view of this, Sangao Company, as the largest local high-quality chicken breeding and breeding enterprise in the country, has built this “Chinese Chicken Culture Museum” in the Gushi Chicken Ecological Breeding Park.
The museum is divided into 3 exhibition halls, through the form of exhibition boards, cultural relics, specimens, physical objects, calligraphy and painting works, etc., comprehensively displaying the formation of chicken breeds, the history and development trend of the development and change of the chicken industry, the distribution of major chicken breeds in the world, the distribution of chicken breeds in China and the appearance characteristics and traits of major chicken breeds, various cultural phenomena related to chickens, including literature, calligraphy and painting, various handicrafts, and food culture, etc., the process and results of Gushi chicken breeding and industrialization development.
Anyone who has lived in France knows that in France, which is known as the “country of roosters”, chicken is not “noble”, and chicken meat is almost the most meat
Cheap one. But interestingly, in many traditional French families, especially in large families in the countryside, eating chicken is a serious matter, not only to eat it on weekends, but also to eat it with the whole family. The reason for this dates back to the famous King Henry IV of France in the 16th century. He was originally the monarch of a small and poor state in the south of France, and became king of France by relying on Wentao Wuluo. When he took office, France was still a mess, and the people worked all year round, but they could not afford even the cheapest chicken. Henry IV vowed to “let the peasants have a chicken in every pot every weekend”. After years of reform, the French economy has improved, and the lives of ordinary people have really improved a lot compared with before, and they can basically eat chicken. Since then, the French have begun to treat chicken-eating weekends as if they were holidays. In honor of Henry IV, many southern French cities are still selling a kind of colored fruit candy called “Henry IV”, many traditional families still adhere to the tradition of eating chicken on weekends, and the famous saying “Let the farmers have a chicken in each pot every weekend” is also written into primary school textbooks and passed down from generation to generation.
Chicken with the sun
The image of the chicken has been deified. Although the chicken is not equal to the sun, the chicken is the messenger or messenger of the sun. As a result, there are pottery chickens, chicken-shaped pots, bronze “golden roosters”, etc., some of which may have been deified themselves, and some of which have long been regarded as messengers or assistants of God. The “gods” mentioned here are, first of all, the sun god and the fire god. The chicken, which is not a sacrifice but an object of sacrifice, is of course of a higher status. It can be said that the chicken at this time has stepped onto the altar step by step. For thousands of years, chickens have left many beautiful myths, legends, literary and artistic works, and also left many historical stories related to chickens, adding rich and colorful content to China’s traditional culture. In ancient social life, the chicken was also one of the symbols of fertility worship. Moreover, in addition to sacrifices, chickens are also indispensable in the feasting activities. The blood is used for the alliance chicken, and the ancient emperor’s amnesty to the world sometimes takes the form of “golden chicken pardon“. The golden rooster is placed above the high noon to show forgiveness. Chickens have the role of sichen and have the function of etiquette, which is an important reason why chickens are valued by the ancients. More practically, raising chickens provides an important source of meat and eggs for people. Although the chicken is small, it has a large production capacity, it grows quickly, has a short cycle and low input costs. Although the ancients rarely had a large-scale chicken industry, as a family side business, it was very common to raise chickens in groups of three or five. In the long years, people have cultivated many excellent chicken breeds, of which meat varieties and meat and egg combination varieties are mostly produced in eastern China, such as Shanghai Pudong chicken, Jiangsu wolf mountain chicken, Liaoning big bone chicken, Shandong Shouguang chicken, Zhejiang Xiaoshan chicken and so on. Excellent chicken breeds are also suitable ingredients for making dishes. As early as the Han Dynasty, there were already delicious local brand-name products – Fu Li Chicken. In the ear chamber symbolizing the kitchen in the tomb of the Han Dynasty Chu King in Xuzhou Lion Mountain, many chicken bones have been unearthed, and there is also a side of mud with the words “Fu Li Cheng Seal” on it. It seems that at that time, Fu Li County sent a lot of Fu Li Chicken tribute to this Chu king of the Han Dynasty. To this day, Fu Li roast chicken is still a well-known local specialty food. Its origins can be traced back to the Han Dynasty.
1． Body temperature, between 40.9 degrees and 41.9 degrees, the average body temperature is 41.5 degrees. Chicks, but when breeding, the temperature requirements of the chicks are high, generally at thirty-four or five degrees.
2． Heartbeats, 160 to 170 beats per minute, chicks are higher than adults in terms of daytime age. In terms of gender, hens are higher than roosters.
3． Egg laying, a hen lays an average of about 300 eggs a year, with an average hatching rate of more than 70%.
4． Other, the ratio of feed to meat is generally 1.50 to 2.00:1; the ratio of feed and egg is generally 2.0-2.5: 1.0
5． Chickens generally live up to 13 years (rearing environment)
6． Layer chickens: Generally in about 110 days (factory breeding), by 72 weeks of elimination, the weight of about 2 kg.
Male and female identification
Rooster: Round eyes, fast feeding
Hens: small head, oval eyes, late eating, slow feeding with the same general chicken, more roosters out of 20.5 days, more hens out of 21 days later
Feeding peak: Under natural light, the feeding peak is 2-3 hours after sunrise and the egg production peak 2-3 hours before sunset:
2-5 h after lighting starts
The reproductive system of chickens is different from that of viviparous mammals. The rooster’s testicles and epididymis are in the abdominal cavity, the mating organs are degenerate reproductive protrusions, and the sperm head is long conical. Sperm can survive in the sperm gland socket in the fallopian tubes of hens for up to 24 days and have the ability to fertilize.
Hens can ovulate every 25 hours or so, only the left ovary and fallopian tubes develop, and the fertilized eggs are suspended after being released from the hen before reaching the hatching critical level (24 ° C).
(a) The reproductive system of the rooster
The reproductive system of a rooster consists of the testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, and intercourse. What artificial inseminators need to know most is the structure of the rooster’s mater.
Roosters do not have a mammalian-like penis, but have a mating apparatus consisting of four parts: a nipple, a glandular duct, a penis, and a lymphatic fold. The mater is located ventrally in the cloaca and is usually all hidden in the cloaca. During sexual excitement, the glandular ducts, the penis and the lymphatic vessels in the lymphatic fold communicate with each other, the lymphatic fold erects, the lymph fluid flows into the penis to enlarge it, and forms a deep longitudinal groove at the midline, and the mid-center penis body (central white body) located at the front of the midline is also protruding directly in front of the lymphatic fluid, at which point the entire penis is pushed out from the ventral side of the anus and inserted into the cloaca of the hen. The body of the penis in the middle is a round protrusion.
(ii) The reproductive system of the hen The reproductive system of the hen consists of two major parts, the ovaries and fallopian tubes, usually only the left ovary and fallopian tubes are fully developed and have reproductive function. The fallopian tubes are made up of trumpets, bulging parts, isthmus, uterus, and vagina. The external genital vaginal opening of the hen and the fecal and urinary openings are jointly opened in the anus, called the cloaca.
The reproductive system of chickens is structured differently from mammals. Both the sexual organs of roosters and hens have inconspicuous and hidden characteristics, so we should be familiar with its structure and lay the foundation for the practical operation of artificial insemination.
When the chicken is mated, the hen is half-squatted or fully squatting, and the wings are propped up to the left and right, just like the feeling of shrugging the shoulders up at the same time. The rooster then steps on the hen’s back with both feet, then bites the hen’s crown or the feathers on his head with his firm mouth, flapping his wings from side to side in order to maintain balance and his butts moving closer to each other. This pose is called “stepping on the match”! After that, the rooster’s sperm enters the hen’s body, allowing the eggs (the pre-egg form) in the hen to be fertilized, and only the ‘fertilized egg’ can hatch the chick. To see if the egg is fertilized, you can shine the egg against the light bulb, if there is a small circle of shadows on the side of the egg (that is, eating the side with a shelled boiled egg and knocking on the side with stomata), it means that the egg has been fertilized, and if there is no shadow, the chick cannot hatch.
Whether mating naturally or artificially inseminated, sperm will quickly ascend along the fallopian tubes and reach within the flared seminal fossa. If there are no eggs in the fallopian tubes after mating (or artificial transsection), it takes only about 30 minutes for the sperm to reach the horn. When the egg enters the horn, it usually takes about 15 minutes for 3-4 sperm to enter the ovule area on the surface of the yolk, but only one sperm can bind to the egg cell and fertilize. In fact, the number of sperm that a rooster can shoot at a mating session is generally between 1.5-8 billion, and a large number of sperm are sacrificed on the way. According to a large number of experimental measurements, the number of sperm is not less than 100 million, and it can also achieve a good fertilization rate, and artificial insemination is based on this to improve the utilization rate of breeding roosters. When there are old and new sperm coexisting in the horn, the viability of the new sperm is greater than that of the old sperm, and the chance of fertilization is also more than that of the old sperm: So the highest fertilization rate usually occurs on the third day after the opening of the mating.
The rooster crows as a “declaration of sovereignty,” reminding family members of its supremacy on the one hand, and warning neighboring roosters not to hit their families on the other. Roosters chirp about once an hour during the day, but the first rooster cry in the morning breaks through the quiet of dawn, and the approaching rooster relays down, which is impressive. Usually, the chickens sleep at night. Chickens have a “pineal gland” in their brains. The pineal gland can secrete a substance called melatonin. If light enters the eye, melatonin secretion is suppressed. Melatonin inhibits the secretion of sex hormones and directly controls the singing of birds. At the dawn, the secretion of melatonin is inhibited, and the rooster involuntarily “Si Chen”; during the year, when the day gradually becomes longer and the melatonin level in the bird’s body decreases, they begin to “call spring”. The uncle who carries the birdcage in the park also knows this truth, usually the birdcage is covered by a thick cloth cover, once the cloth cover is removed, the light awakens the “chirping center” of the birds, and the singing meeting begins.
In ancient times, roosters could enjoy dark and quiet nights. Sometimes when there is a full moon, the moonlight occasionally stimulates the overly sensitive rooster to “get up at night”. In the time of war, the probability of roosters being disturbed by sound and fire at night increased greatly, so the ancients used “rooster night chirping” as a harbinger of war.
In modern society, the popularity of artificial lighting has long eliminated the difference between day and night. Not only are humans suffering from the health problems caused by the decline in melatonin levels caused by “artificial daylight”, but other animals that follow the human mixture also suffer. According to the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), britain’s national bird, the Eurasian plover commonly known as the “robin”, chirps all night in many places.
1. Selected fine seeds. Excellent breeds are the basis for raising quality broilers. Skin should be selected
It is a well-known local breed of thin bones, full muscle, delicious flesh, strong stress resistance, and small and medium-sized colored feathers. If it is a layer chicken but a Highland brown Jinghong No. 1, these two kinds of chickens are better, with high egg production rate and strong adaptability. If it is a commercial chicken, you can raise black chicken guifei chicken, if you raise stupid chicken, you can raise three yellow chickens and reed chickens and other varieties.
Second, pay attention to grazing. Grazing is one of the important measures to improve the meat quality of broiler chickens. The brooding technical requirements of high-quality free-range native chickens are no different from those of fast and large broilers, and the broods are transferred to the greenhouse for about 30 days in the brooding room. Grazing is generally 30 days old in summer, 45 days old in spring and autumn, and 50 to 60 days old in winter. Chicken breeding sites should choose high and dry terrain, sheltered from the wind and the sun, quiet environment, convenient drinking water, no pollution, no animal pests of bamboo gardens, orchards, tea gardens, mulberry gardens and other places are ideal. Chickens can eat pests and weeds in the above-mentioned “four gardens” and can also be “four gardens”
fertilize. Put the pasture land can be set up with a sand pit, so that the chicken sand bath. It is also necessary to build grass huts or plastic greenhouses to protect from rain, sun and cold. Broilers emerge early and return late, and the grazing density is 50 to 70 per mu, and the size of each herd is about 500. To prevent chickens from getting lost or endangering nearby crops, pastures can be fenced and stocked until they are sold. Strengthening grazing can improve the firmness of chicken meat, promote physical fitness and close and bright feathers, and can also feed grass, grass seeds, dead leaves, insects and flies, etc., to save feed and improve meat quality. Conditional can put a batch of chickens for another place, which is conducive to disease prevention and chicken foraging.
Third, feed the feed skillfully. Feed is an important factor affecting the quality of meat. High-quality native chickens should be fed full-price feed for easily digestible and nutritious chicks during the brooding period. Because of its slow growth rate, the crude protein content in the feed is 2 percentage points lower than the full price of fast and large broiler chickens, and a small number of meals are achieved to promote the growth and development of the chicks. During the breeding and grazing period, more green feed, agricultural and sideline products, and soil grains should be fed to improve meat quality and reduce feed costs, and generally only after returning late to feed compound feed. 1 to 2 weeks before sale, if the chicken is thin, you can increase the amount of compound feed, limit grazing for moderate fertilization. In the middle and late stage of the compound feed can not add silkworm pupae, fish meal, meat powder and other animal feed, limited use of rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and other feed that adversely affects the meat quality and meat color, do not add synthetic pigments, chemical synthesis of non-nutritional additives and drugs, etc., should add an appropriate amount of orange peel powder, pine needle powder, garlic, ginger, fennel, cinnamon, tea and other natural substances to change the meat color, improve meat quality and increase umami.
Fourth, strict epidemic prevention. Doing a good job in epidemic prevention and disease eradication is an important guarantee for raising high-quality free-range chickens. In general, free-range native chickens are more resistant to disease, and there are fewer diseases than faster captive large broiler chickens. However, due to its long breeding period, coupled with grazing in the wild, there are many opportunities for exposure to pathogens, and it is necessary to conscientiously do a good job in hygiene, disinfection and epidemic prevention work in accordance with the requirements of chicken raising, and must not slacken off in the slightest, according to the actual local focus to do the following epidemic prevention work, the recommended immunization procedures are shown in Table 1.
In addition, special attention should be paid to the prevention and control of coccidiosis, Carrea leukocytosis and gastrointestinal parasitic diseases. Frequent inspection, once it occurs, timely expulsion, broiler prevention and treatment of diseases in the middle and late stages as far as possible without artificial synthetic drugs, more use of traditional Chinese medicine and take biological control, in order to reduce and control the drug residues in chicken.
Fifth, timely sales. The right feeding period is an important part of improving the quality of meat. The feeding period is too short, the water content in chicken meat is more, the accumulation of nutrients is not enough, the content of umami and aromatic substances is small, the meat quality is not good, the taste is not fresh, and it cannot meet the standards of high-quality native chickens; the feeding period is too long, the muscle fiber is too old, and the feeding cost is too large and uneconomical. According to the growth physiology and accumulation characteristics of the native chicken, as well as the characteristics of the rooster growing faster than the hen and the early sexual maturity, it is determined that the small broiler rooster is listed for 100 days and the hen is listed for 120 days; the medium-sized broiler rooster is 110 days and the hen is listed for 130 days. At this time, the weight of the listed chicken, the nutrients in the chicken, the accumulation of umami and aromatic substances basically reach the content standard of the adult chicken, and the meat quality is relatively tender, which is the best combination point of weight, quality and cost.
Prevention of chicken diseases
Chicken disease is a major threat to the modern chicken industry. Chickens are small, have poor resistance, are densely raised, have large groups, and are often prone to disease. At the beginning of the disease, it is not easy to detect, and once the outbreak is bound to spread rapidly throughout the group, it is difficult to extinguish. Some infectious diseases have so far not been effectively treated with drugs or vaccines. Even if the sick chicken is cured, not only does it cost a lot, but the production performance decreases and the cost increases. Therefore, only by doing a good job in environmental sanitation, strengthening feeding management, paying attention to epidemic prevention and disinfection, and doing a good job in preventing injections, is the most practical and effective means to prevent diseases before they occur.
Any change in the animal’s health can be called a disease, which is caused by pathogenic microorganisms, nutritional deficiencies or an unsuitable environment. Therefore, on the whole, the prevention work should start from two aspects: do a good job in breeding management and eliminate pathogenic factors.
The purpose of doing a good job in breeding management is to improve the quality of the entire flock, maintain healthy physical condition, and enhance the body’s resistance to disease. So the work to be done can be summarized in three aspects:
First, adequate nutrition, according to the age, breed, type, weight, use, etc. of the chickens fed full price mixed feed to meet their needs for various nutrients.
The second is to feed carefully, do not feed moldy and sour rotten materials, do not drink dirty and unclean and poisonous water, and put good “diseases from the mouth” off.
The third is to create an environment and strive to maintain a relatively stable living environment for chickens, requiring air circulation in the house, reasonable density, and suitable temperature and humidity. Frequent cleaning and scrubbing, waste removal, pollution control. All staff strictly abide by the established breeding management system. Outsiders are not allowed to visit to avoid bringing bacteria into the room.
Any chicken farm must establish a series of strict epidemic prevention systems and scientific immunization procedures, strengthen health management, cut off transmission routes, and eliminate pathogenic factors. This requires the following measures.
Production specialization: A chicken farm is best to raise only the same breed of chickens, for example, the Isa layer farm only raises Isa layer chickens and no longer raises other breeds of layer chickens; it is also possible to raise only chickens of the same age and the same breed in a chicken coop.
“All in, all out” system: full in means that the same chicken coop only raises chickens of the same day’s age; while the chickens in the same coop are all sold or eliminated in the same period. This system is conducive to the implementation of feeding management and technical measures, facilitates the thorough cleaning and disinfection of chicken coops and utensils and equipment, and makes each batch of chickens have a “clean start”.
Avoid cross-infection: Chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys or other livestock and poultry cannot be kept together, otherwise some comorbid diseases are difficult to control.
Reasonable construction of chicken coops: Different types of chicken coops (such as layer coops, broiler coops, chick coops or breeding coops, etc.) should be as far away from each other as possible in the same chicken farm, and the distance between each chicken coop must meet the health and epidemic prevention standards.
Establish health cards: Each batch or each chicken coop should fill in a health card listing items such as breed, date of hatching, number and time of transfer, date of preventive drug delivery or vaccination, type of vaccine, time of onset, symptoms, causes and treatment results, etc., in order to grasp the health status, disease types and incidence patterns of each flock of chickens or chickens.
Timely removal of sick chickens: Sick chickens are extremely dangerous sources of infection, and should be correctly identified and removed in time. Strict treatment of sick and dead chickens is of great significance to maintaining the health of the whole flock.
Selection of drugs to eliminate mold: drug disinfection, sterilization of germs, is a routine work of chicken farms. All personnel entering the production area, the chicken coop and all the equipment and utensils related to the chicken are the objects of disinfection. Wash it first and then apply the drug, the effect is better.
Quarantine and immunization: These two tasks are carried out on a regular basis. Eliminating sick chickens through quarantine can also prevent foreign chickens from entering with diseases. According to the immunization program, regular vaccinations enable chickens to gain immunity to a certain disease, such as vaccination with Xincheng vaccine, which can prevent the occurrence of chicken plague.
Regular deworming: Once the chicken is infected with the parasite, it grows slowly, lays fewer eggs, is emaciated and weak, consumes more material, and in severe cases causes death. Therefore, it is necessary to deworm regularly, especially in flat-raised chickens, such as the use of drugs to control chicken coccidiosis.
Preventive drug delivery: The appropriate amount of certain drugs is purposefully added to the diet or drinking water to enhance the body’s resistance and prevent certain diseases; or according to the epidemic information, preventive drug administration is carried out for a period of time to avoid the occurrence of diseases.
In short, although human beings cannot completely control the various diseases of chickens, through various efforts and methods, the loss caused by diseases can be minimized.
Habits of life
Poor cold resistance. The chicks that have just come out of the shell, the body temperature is 3 ° C lower than that of adult chickens, it takes 10 days to reach the normal body temperature, plus the chicks have short and thin hairs, can not withstand the cold, so the adaptability to the environment is not strong, must rely on artificial heat preservation, chicks can grow and develop normally. Chicks from 1-30 days are kept warm and raised in a clean and hygienic environment. Chicks over 30 days old, the feathers are basically full and long, can not be insulated. High body temperature and rapid development. The body temperature of the chicken is generally between 40.8-41.5 ° C, so it must be raised in a warm winter and cool summer, well-ventilated environment, in addition, the chicken’s digestive tract is short, the metabolism is vigorous, and the growth and development are fast, so it is necessary to feed sufficient nutrition and easy to digest to meet the needs. Weak resistance. Chicks, in particular, are vulnerable to harmful microorganisms. Therefore, in addition to doing a good job in cleaning and sanitation of the environment, it is also necessary to do a good job in prevention. For example, the chicken coop is strictly forbidden to outsiders to enter and exit, the environment and cages should be disinfected, and all kinds of chickens should be regularly injected with various preventive injections. Easy to frighten. Chickens are timid, especially chicks are easily frightened, the light are crowded, the growth and development are hindered, and the heavy trample on each other causes disability and death. Therefore, raise chickens in a quiet place. Rough management, sudden noise, dog and cat intrusion, swooping, etc. can cause chicken riots and affect growth. Fear of moisture. Chickens should grow in a dry and ventilated environment, if the environment is humid, some pathogens and molds are easy to grow and multiply. If the chicken coop is damp, the chicken manure will ferment to produce toxic gases, making the chicken susceptible to disease.
Pheasant is a species of pheasant in the family Pheasantidae. Also known as pheasant, pheasant, pheasant, ring-neck pheasant, collared pheasant. In China, except for most of the Tibetan Plateau
In addition, it is distributed throughout the country. Body length 90 to 100 cm meters. The male bird has gorgeous plumage. The pheasant seen in East China has a brass color on the top of its head and white eyebrow lines on both sides. The chin, throat, and back of the neck are all black and metallicly reflective. There is a pronounced white circle under the neck, so it is commonly known as the ring-necked pheasant. The back is golden yellow in front, chestnut red in the back, and olive green in the back, all of which are patched. The tail feathers are very long , the main is yellowish brown , and the transverse is a series of dark spots. The thorax is copper-red with metallic purple , the plumage has anchor-like black spots , and the remainder of the lower body is also multi-spotted. It usually inhabits hills with grass and trees, and moves to the fields in the harsh winter to feed on insects, plant seeds, berries and grains. Strong feet are good at walking, wings are short, can not fly high and long. The call is monotonous and low. During the breeding period, nest in the grass of the hills, and lay dry grass, fallen leaves, etc. in the recesses of the ground. Each clutch lays 6 to 14 eggs, usually 2 clutches per year. There are 19 subspecies of pheasants in China.
The so-called bug chicken. It is named after the ecological environment, using maggots to raise, these chickens are either overgrown, or surrounded by mountains and waters, or in the tree-lined ecological environment to enjoy the insect delicacies given by natural ecological nature, natural growth. Insect active proteins such as fly maggots eaten by bug chickens are known as the full nutrition food of humans in the 21st century. Fly maggot protein contains a large number of chitin that has a special effect on the human body, and antibacterial peptides also contain a variety of amino acids and proteins necessary for the human body. According to reports: Bug chickens feed on high-protein fly maggots for life, enriching the “energy” of insects and becoming the most ideal carrier of insect protein. So this chicken is delicious, has a good taste and is rich in nutrition. It has a natural fragrance, has the effect of tonifying qi and blood, making up for weakness, nourishing the kidneys and spleen.
Chicken feathers are divided into chicken feathers and pheasant feathers, which are exposed to the outside of the body and called external feathers, and the part covered by the skin is called down feathers. The output of feathers is 7.6%-8.6% of the live claws of chickens, if it can be widely collected, processed and utilized, it can produce pillow cores, quilt pads, vests, military sleeping bags, etc. of the belly, and large feathers can also make feather fans, badminton balls, etc.
(1) Collection and preservation of feathers
(1) There are two kinds of collection and plucking, dry plucking and wet plucking, and dry plucking is preferred. Most parts of Our country use wet plucking, feathers with large water content, need to be dried and preserved. Chicken feathers should be collected to separate the fluff, flakes and large feathers, especially the villi and flakes of hair are the most valuable and should not be left out. The quality and use of various feathers are different, and they should not be mixed.
(2) Drying feathers should be selected in a sheltered, sunny and clean place, do not mix in impurities. Sun-dried feathers should be stored in time to avoid being blown away by the wind and getting wet with dew at night.
(3) Keep the dried feathers in the dry warehouse, check it frequently, and if it is moldy or has a special smell, it should be re-dried.
(2) Processing of feathers
(1) The wind selection will pour the feathers into the wool shaker in batches, start the blower, make the feathers fly in the box, and use the different densities of the hair, feathers, ash sand and foot skin to fall into the box for classification and collection. In order to ensure quality, the wind speed in the bellows should be uniform, and the selected feathers should be packed into large bags.
(2) After picking up the feathers after the clean wind selection, the hair stalks and stray hairs are picked up again, and the ash content and fleece content are sampled to check whether they meet the standards.
(3) Stack the nets picked up and stacked according to the quality components, so that the fleece content reaches the finished product standard.
(4) The feathers after the packaging will be stacked and re-tested to meet the standards, that is, poured into the baler, and sewn after taking out the bag head, number, and scale are finished products for sale.
(1) The selection of materials should be selected to contain chicken feathers containing dense velvet, divided according to the part of the chicken, and the chicken feathers in the chest and abdomen are the most suitable raw materials for processing chicken down.
(2) Tearing down is generally to use the thumb, index finger and middle finger of the left hand to pinch the upper hair of the chicken down, and then use the thumb, index finger and middle finger of the right hand to pinch the fleece on the right side of the lower half of the chicken feathers to tear it down, and the torn down fleece becomes a flower, that is, chicken down.
(3) When the color separation is torn, in addition to the white chicken down to be separately served, other colors are collectively called gray chicken down, which can be held together.
(4) Packaging white chicken down and gray chicken down due to different prices, must be packaged separately. Chicken down is a light soaking material, in order to save transportation costs, it should be stepped on during the packaging process. The specifications and quality of chicken down naturally require dryness and soft feel. The content of chicken down shall not be less than 90%, of which the compound feather shall not exceed 10%, and the wool piece shall not exceed 2%.
The chicken is delicious and nutritious. Most of the nutrients of chicken are protein and fat, but chicken meat is deficient in calcium, iron, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and various vitamins and crude fiber, if the chicken is eaten as a staple food for a long time and does not consume other fruits, vegetables and grains, it is easy to lead to sub-health.
Scientific surveys believe that the amount of chicken eaten has a significant impact on the health of the human body, especially the elderly and women.
Nutritionists point out that because people eat a variety of foods throughout the day, on average, chicken has the highest cholesterol content. Cholesterol will greatly increase the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, if the elderly, women eat chicken every day, then there will be excess cholesterol deposited in the body, which is not only not conducive to health, but also increases the chance of heart disease, cerebral thrombosis induced.
In addition, some unscrupulous traders add hormones to chicken feed, resulting in hormone residues in chicken meat, which will also affect human health.
Pregnant women eat chickens containing hormones, which can lead to milk return and excessive obesity; minors can also lead to precocious puberty.
Nutrient content (per 100 grams): energy 167cal, water 69g, protein 19.3g, fat 9.4g, fiber 0g, carbohydrate 1.3g, vitamin A48mg, vitamin B10.05mg, vitamin B20.09mg, vitamin C0mg, vitamin E0.67mg, niacin 5.6mg, sodium 63.3mg, calcium 9mg, iron 1.4mg, cholesterol 106mg.
Chicken is rich in protein, and its fat contains unsaturated fatty acids, so it is a better protein food for the elderly and patients with cardiovascular disease. It is more suitable for weak physique, and it is more suitable to eat chicken or chicken soup as a supplement after illness or postpartum, especially black bone chicken. It can be used for fatigue and thinness, bone steaming hot flashes, spleen deficiency and diarrhea, thirst quenching, collapse, red white belt, sperm retention, etc.
【Sexual taste】Sweet, warm, non-toxic.
【Efficacy】Tonic deficiency, dispel evil, but do not eat more, because it can cause old diseases, although chicken has a tonic effect. But it can help warm up
【Efficacy indications】It is better to take Dan and white cocks. Function: The lord kills ghosts and removes the plague, because the chicken is yang essence, and the male is yang, and the head is the place where yang qi is released, so it can dispel yang evil.
Chicken crown blood
【Sexual taste】Salty, flat and non-toxic.
【Efficacy】The chicken crown blood of the black chicken can treat the milk blockage, and can also be used for the eyes to see the wind and tears and the red eyes of Tianxing. The crown blood of the red chicken can cure vitiligo, remove the wind and heat between the meridians, and apply the cheeks to cure the crookedness of the mouth and eyes. Internal administration can be used for hanging death, children’s rapid wind, to relieve centipede, spider venom. Cure frequent tears, you can use chicken crown blood to dot the eyes, three times a day.
【Sexual taste】Salty, flat and non-toxic.
【Indications for efficacy】Indications for the treatment of fractures and limb weakness, abdominal pain, and milk. Taking hot blood can treat children’s blood in the stool and convulsions, detoxify erysipelas and insect poisons, and calm the mind. To cure vitiligo and boils, take the blood under the wings of the rooster and rub it.
【Sexual taste】Sweet, cold, non-toxic.
【Indications】Indications for deafness and hair loss.
【Indications for the treatment of epilepsy in children】Indications for the treatment of pediatric eclampsia. After being burned to ashes, it is taken with wine to treat women with difficult childbirth.
【Efficacy】Dispel the five evils.
【Sexual taste】Sweet, bitter, warm, non-toxic.
【Indications】 Tonic kidney aphrodisiac, treatment of abdominal pain, fetal leakage, then use a liver, chopped and five wines. To cure women’s itching, slices are included in **. It also treats liver deficiency and visual fainting.
【Sexual taste】Sweet, cold, non-toxic.
【Indications】 Indications for the treatment of smart eyes and light body, making people’s skin moisturized, energetic, anti-aging, muscle sores. Dipping the wick in bile to dot the tire with red eyes is very good, and it is also effective for hemorrhoids after watering.
【Indications】Indications for urinary incontinence and choking.
Chicken inner gold
【Sexual taste】Sweet, flat and non-toxic.
【Indications】Indications for diarrhea, frequent urination and heat in the five internal organs. It can also treat sperm retention, blood in urine, blood under the band of collapse, and blood under intestinal wind. It can also digest food and stomach.
【Indications for efficacy】Indications for the treatment of enuresis, urinary incontinence and sperm retention, burning ash with chicken intestines, each time taking three fingers long, with wine.
【Indications for efficacy】Indications for the treatment of children who eat more and are prone to hunger and lose weight.
【Indications for efficacy】That is, two feet, treatment of dystocia, its burning wine, but also can soften the bone carp, burn ash water to serve.
【Indications】Indications for the treatment of women’s amenorrhea, left wing hair can also help the yin. And it can treat women’s urinary incontinence, ** prolapse, and can also treat bone choking and carbuncle.
【Indications for efficacy】If there are thorns in the flesh, fourteen tail hairs are burned to ashes, and the men’s milk is sealed, when it comes out. To detoxify Shu pepper, the tail hair is burned with smoke, inhaled, and the water is adjusted to the ashes orally. After treating children with acne, suppuration is burned and water is applied.
【Sexual taste】Sweet, flat, non-toxic.
【Indications for efficacy】Relieve fever and calm the mind, relieve itching, stop diarrhea, stroke dizziness, phlegm confusion, tetanus stroke, and eliminate chest and abdomen lumps.
1. Chicken can be stir-fried, stewed soup, cold mixed;
2. The nutrition of chicken is higher than that of chicken soup;
3. Chicken butt is the place where lymph is most concentrated, and it is also a warehouse for storing germs, viruses and carcinogens, and should be abandoned.
A complete set of practices
Fried chicken thighs
Cola chicken thigh curry potatoes
Glutinous rice chicken
Three cups of chicken
Anyone who goes to a Taiwanese restaurant can always order three cups of chicken, and everyone naturally thinks that it is Taiwanese cuisine. In fact, it is an authentic Jiangxi dish.
The origin is related to Wen Tianxiang
Three cups of chicken is a Jiangxi specialty, so named because when cooking chicken nuggets, add a small cup of sweet rice wine, lard, and soy sauce, do not put the soup water, and stew the chicken nuggets over a charcoal fire. Don’t underestimate this dish, its source can be related to the great hero Wen Tianxiang.
At the end of the Southern Song Dynasty, the national hero Wen Tianxiang was captured. An old woman learned that Wen Tianxiang was about to be killed, so she brought a chicken and a pot of wine to visit him in prison.
With the help of a Jiangxi jailer, the old woman met Wen Tianxiang. The jailer packed up the chicken brought by the old woman and cut it into pieces, poured three glasses of rice wine into a clay bowl, and simmered it over a low fire. An hour later, the two of them brought chicken to Wen Tianxiang, and he ate the last meal with the hatred of the country.
After this jailer returned to his hometown of Jiangxi, he would pay homage to him with this dish on the day of Wen Tianxiang’s sacrifice. Later, the chef changed the three glasses of wine to a cup of sweet wine, a cup of soy sauce, a cup of lard, and used the three yellow chickens produced by Jiangxi Ningdu as raw materials, which is now the famous Jiangxi three cups of chicken. This dish was also selected for the main Olympic menu.
Three cups of tabletop chicken with unique seasoning
Later, three cups of chicken spread to Taiwan. The Taiwanese have made a minor makeover of it, swapping greasy lard for light cooking oil and adding a unique spice, the nine-story tower.
This somewhat mysterious spice with a name is actually the basil commonly used in Western food, which is widely grown in the tropics and has a particularly strong aroma. In Taiwan, the nine-story pagoda is a widely used spice, and there is such a saying in the countryside of Taiwan: nine-story pagoda, ten incense.
It is said that there used to be a hostess in Taiwan, because her family was poor, she could only kill the old hens in the family to entertain guests. Because she was afraid that the chicken was not fragrant enough, she took the nine-story tower that grew in the courtyard as a material, and the nine-story tower really made the three cups of chicken more fragrant and delicious.
In fact, this nine-story tower is not only an indispensable ingredient for making Taiwanese three-cup chicken, but also can be used to cook seafood such as clams, and there is a simple and delicious nine-story tower scrambled egg in Taiwanese home cooking.
1, after the whole chicken is slaughtered and groomed, washed with water (keep the chicken skin not broken), when deboning, first in the middle of the two wings and shoulders at the neck of the chicken head, along the neck bone straight a knife, the skin of the neck cut a 7 cm long mouth, with the hand to pull the skin and flesh apart, the neck bone out, and use the tip of the knife near the chicken head to fracture the neck fracture (the tip of the knife can not touch the chicken skin), take out from the opening, hook with a hook (or tied with a rope) to hang up.
2. Turn the chicken skin from the neck knife edge, slowly peel the meat of the chicken head with the belt downwards, peel it until the joints of the two arms are exposed, and use the tip of the knife to cut the tendons of the joints, so that the wing bones are separated from the chicken body bones, and the wing bones are withdrawn.
3. After the wing bone is removed, grasp the neck of the chicken with one hand, hold the pointed bone of the chicken chest with the other hand, press it inward (avoid cutting the chicken skin when the bone is peeled downward), continue to peel the skin downward (when peeling, pay attention to: the back of the chicken is easy to be scratched due to the lack of meat and tight skin), and the skin and bone are gently cut away with a knife. When peeling the legs, turn the legs and back open so that the thigh joints are exposed, cut the tendons of the joints with a knife (you cannot cut the skin of the tail), attach the tip of the chicken to the chicken, and rinse it. At this time, the bones of the chicken body have been separated from the meat, and all the bones (including internal organs) can be removed.
4. Remove the leg bones. First cut the leg skin near the upper joint and the near lower joint of the calf, pull out the calf bone, and then turn the flesh at the joint opening of the upper calf upwards to the thigh, so that the thigh bone is exposed to the flesh, the thigh bone tendon is cut off, the right hand is scraped with a knife, and the left hand is pulled out forcefully.
5. After the chicken bones are all shed, turn the chicken skin inward, rinse it with water, and keep it intact. The deboning method of ducks, pigeons and quail is basically the same as that of whole chickens.
1． Chicken + celery = Yuan Qi damage.
2． Chicken + carp = chicken is warm, has the effect of tonifying the yang, and carp is flat, can be conducive to underwater gas, both of which are easy to cause physical discomfort.
3． Chicken + mustard = chicken is warm, has a warm supplement effect, has a mustard heat, if the two are eaten together, it is easy to cause fire, which is harmful to human health.
4． Chicken + sesame seeds = eating together can lead to poisoning.
5． Chicken + chrysanthemum tea = eating together can lead to poisoning.
6． Caudal glands: contains carcinogens and cannot be eaten.
Chicken wings and chicken feet can move the wind, produce phlegm, and help fire, so those who are hypertrophic in the liver and yang are forbidden to eat.
1. When the chicken is stressed, do not cut off the beak, such as the chicken that has just been vaccinated or has a disease, and must wait until the chickens return to normal; because the beak itself is a big stress to the chicken.
2. 1 to 2 days before beaking, add multidimensional and glucose to drinking water to resist other stresses that occur. Do not feed sulfonamides (prolonging bleeding) for two days before and after beaking, and add vitamin K to water (2 mg per kilogram of water). After the beak is cut off, more feed is added to the feeding tank to reduce the pain of pecking.
3, the time of beak breakage: broiler chicken: the best weight of the broken beak is 85 ~ 92g, at this time about 6 ~ 7 days old, the hand is convenient, and the chicken chick physique has been strong, the brain is basically not afraid of the pressure of the thumb fixed on the head when the beak is broken, the effect is the best. On the contrary, the hatchings are too large, it is difficult to stop the bleeding, the operation is difficult, the work is slow, and the emergency is large; the hatchings are too small, the health is poor, and it is easy to cause high death.
Grass chicken: the beak is cut off at 10 to 15 days old, when the beak is not severed, it will not cause a strong stress response. Grass chickens are small and cannot be cut off prematurely, and generally only cut their beaks once a feeding cycle. Because grass chickens in the breeding period, more open feeding, often feed vegetables, grass, need a certain length of beak. Therefore, use 11 days of scalding, scalding off the tip of the mouth, up and down as straight, not as short as the layer chicken short and long. The advantage is that the pecking feathers are better, the mouth shape changes not much, do not look carefully, see it, will not affect the sale.
4. Do not cut off the beak during high temperatures and immunization (you can choose morning and evening in summer) to avoid increasing its stress.
5. When cutting the beak, an experienced breeder is required to cut the beak to prevent unevenness. When the beak is broken, pay attention to the concentration of force, the action is sensitive, the length of the cut is appropriate, the temperature of the beak breaker blade should be controlled, the temperature is too low, and the beak will bleed after the beak is broken.
6. The method of breaking the beak
One is the sintering method, which is mostly used for meat chickens,
One is the excision method, which uses a hot blade to cut the beak of the chicken with a burn, which is mostly used in layer chickens. The length of the beak is 1/2 of the upper beak cut off and the lower beak cut off 1/3 (from the nostril to the beak end). When the beak is broken, wait for the blade to burn until brownish red, hold the chicken with your hand, put your thumb against the back of the chicken’s head, and press the index finger against the jaw of the chicken and gently press the pharynx, so that the chicken’s head cannot be shaken from side to side, and at the same time make the chicken shrink its tongue. The beak break time is about 1 to 2 seconds.